Posted by: Mark on February 24, 2015
If not done correctly Chair Joinery can become a headache, having the final project completed only to come crashing down when someone sits. In order to successfully make a chair by joinery, the woodworker needs to understand the process and techniques required.
When making a chair, it is important to comprehend that all chair joinery should have the reinforcement. This means that corner blocks need to be screwed in place. If screws are not desirable in your project, then you could use glue too. However, in order to use glue and gain strength, sophisticated techniques will need to be used. Gluing end-grain together will not give the strength needed to support the chair and is why corner blocks are put in place. The corner blocks give extra strength the keep the chair together if the main joinery loosens. Corner blocks should always be used and they allow for a convenient location to attach the seat.
Industry standard is to use the double dowel joint, but the mortise and tenon should be the joint of choice. Dowel joints have problems in loosening up and do not have good long-grain to long-grain glue surface, meaning that inevitably these dowel joints will loosen. When joining your chair, you need as much long-grain to long-grain surface as possible. The mortise and tenon will provide this and is why it is the joint of choice.
In order for the mortise and tenon to work well the inner walls of the mortise and the sides of the tenon must be smooth, flat, and in complete contact with each other. The joint should also be snug and not too tight so that you cannot push together by hand. The joint should also not be too loose in which it will fall apart if you pick one of the joints up. Dowel joints do give strengths like the mortise and tenon, but the quality is just not there. For dowel joints to be strong there needs to be lots of dowels spread out over a vast area. Biscuit joints can also be a possibility, but the shape of the biscuit can cause its problems in the joining process. The problem seen in biscuit joints is that it has a tiny contact out on its ends, and this is where the maximum force is placed in a chair joint with typical use.
It is evident with loose joints what problems will arise in a chair, but it is a common myth thinking that adding glue to the gaps will give real strength to the joint. The best method is to patch the chairs loose joints with veneer or something thicker and re-fit the loose joint. A joint that is too tight is also a problem. It is not the tightness that is a problem. The problem lies with the glue being wiped from the joints surfaces when the joint is fit together.
Whichever you choose, mortise and tenon or dowels make sure the techniques used put the joints together securely, adding strength to the chair. How embarrassing would it be for your good looking chair to fall apart right when someone sits down? Learn the techniques that will instill quality into your work.
This post was supplied by Lyndon who writes for Patchett Joinery, manufacturers and suppliers of wooden sash windows.
Posted by: Mark on
There are four forces that are needed on a plane to enable flight. Let’s break down these four forces for a better understanding:
Weight – Pulls the plane down with gravity
Lift – Brings the plane up by using the downward momentum and meeting the resistance of air
Thrust – Pulls the plane forward [Engines]
Drag – Creates air resistance pulling the plane back
To understand the basic physics of flight, think of air as a fluid like water. If you move your hand, palm flat, through a tub of water or hold your hand outside of a moving vehicle, you will experience a force of resistance. The resistance you feel is the motion of the fluid or air resisting the object or your hand. In order for a plane to take flight there has to be a careful relationship of the four opposing forces of weight, lift, thrust, and drag. You might think engines are all that is needed to make a plane fly but the four forces are needed and have to work together allowing planes to fly through the air.
A plane’s engines are designed to move the plane forward at high speeds that make air flow rapidly over the wings. The air flow is thrown down toward the ground, generating an upward force called lift. This lift overcomes the planes weight and holds it in the sky. A simpler explanation would be that an engine move the aircraft forward, and the wings move it upward. Wings make the lift and are the key to making planes fly.
Wings of a plane have a curved upper surface with a flat bottom surface, creating a cross-sectional shape called an airfoil. When air moves over the curved upper wing surface, it has to travel further and go faster than the air that passes underneath. Basic theory of physics states that fast-moving air is at a lower pressure than slower moving air. This means that the pressure above the wing is lower than the pressure below, creating the lift that holds the plane up. This is an excellent explanation of how wings work, but it is not the only factor involved in making the plane fly.
Creating the lift has many factors to consider, wings are not completely flat. They are tilted slightly back so that they hit the air at an angle. The angle directs the airflow downward, pushing the wings upward to produce the lift. Have you ever wondered what the flaps are on the wings of a plane? Flaps are there to increase lift during take-off as well as create drag when landing. During take-off, the plane is moving at a slower speed, so the flaps will extend to push more air down to produce the lift the plane needs to take off of the ground.
There are still many more other factors that allow a plane to fly, but hopefully you get the basics and understand that the wings are the key but not only element needed to fly a plane. Remember the four forces as these are the basics of plane flight.
Thanks to Lyndon for this post, Lyndon writes for Custom Fittings. Custom Fittings supply Stainless Steel Hydraulic Fittings and Aerospace testing adaptors.
Posted by: Mark on
Utility providers answer to their shareholders and it is their interests they have at heart. It is important at year end to post a healthy profit if you want to see your share prices increase. The government should have the people, their voters’ interests at the heart of their decision making but this only seems to become an issue during election campaigning. It seems the consumer has not received a fair deal from either the Utility Provider or the Government when it comes to Utility costs which in this time of austerity is hard as the utility cost is the highest cost in the monthly budget.
The government, or more to the point, the labour opposition have suggested they would freeze energy prices. Is this the answer when many providers enable their clients to freeze energy by fixing their tariffs against any future increases? This tariff is higher than the current tariff to hedge against any future increases that may occur and is where the consumer meets the provider half way. If the tariff doesn’t already reflect current International gas cuts then this may not be the route the consumer will want to follow. So the government’s idea to cap the tariff rate may not benefit the consumer and certainly seems to have worried the suppliers who believe they could be trapped into an unprofitable tariff that would be inflexible.
Consumer lobbyists are researching why suppliers have been so slow in reacting to Gas cost cuts and why the cuts are not reflective of the International decrease they feel the 3.1%-5% is too small. There is also the question of when the price of gas increases, the suppliers are quick to increase prices as reflected in the increase in late 2013 of 5.1% it seems the excuse of forward buying delays only applies to price decreases. Perhaps, instead of fixing prices, the government needs to cap the maximum price to a percentage above the base International gas price that suppliers are allowed to charge. The results of these enquiries are being passed on to the Competition and Market Authority and the HM Treasury who are both conducting investigations into the energy market. This places a question mark over whether households are getting the fairest deal from the supplier of their energy – the top of every householder’s outgoings.
The Government as well as suppliers need to be more proactive. After pressure from the government EON quickly lowered their rates in January of this year but the other major suppliers have been slow to follow and seem to be waiting for the winter to draw to a close before applying any cuts or perhaps they are waiting for the election results before committing. These costs should be independent of politics whoever is in power should have the people at their heart not the shareholders. Perhaps it is time the consumer took some control by ruthlessly swapping suppliers and informing lobbyists of any concerns they may have. If we don’t say something we will be at the mercy of the suppliers.
First Utility is the UK’s largest independent energy supplier, the company offer cheap gas and electricity tariffs. Here is the First utility customer services number.
Posted by: Mark on October 16, 2014
In Wind of Luck, you place yourself in battles to defeat the enemies and claim treasure, ports, and bases. The game features several different battle modes and maps. With the combination of these and the ships, players have a whole world at the palm of their hands. They are able to create strategies that will likely lead them to victory and defeat the other team. The battles are very interactive allowing lots of free space and freedom in general for players.
Wind of Luck features six different and very unique maps. Each map has something different and something more challenging that players will come face-to-face with. Among the maps is Aztec Gold. This map has several small islands that your ships can use to their advantage. Either to hide behind or blend in with. The islands are beautiful. They have beautiful mountains surrounded by palm trees. The other maps that players have are Skeleton Island, Lost Expedition, Archipelago, Straits of Makassar, and a map called Imperial Pearls. Each map is different. The one thing they really have in common in the beautiful scenery. The water and sky are so beautifully textured.
There are five different battle types in Wind of Luck. Each battle type presents players different challenges and obstacles that they will face in trying to claim themselves as victor. The first type of battle is Lost Treasure. This battle involves two teams of ship captains trying to claim a treasure sunken at the bottom the sea in a lost ship. The teams are meant to fight to finally get the treasure out from underwater. First to claim the treasure is the winner. The second battle is the Royal Caravan. This battle is personally one of my favourites. This battle mode features only one team. Players are required to work together to protect the passing caravan from pirates trying to steal the treasure. After a certain time, if the team still stands they will complete the challenge. A third battle mode is Port Siege. This battle mode is also very fun. It features two teams trying to claim the other team’s port. By defeating the enemy team and claiming their port, you win.
After each battle players are rewarded with Fame, Expertise, and Piastres. Fame is what players use to unlock new ships in the shop. Expertise is what players use to unlock new features from the Tier Tree. Piastres is what players will use to repair their ship and replenish ammunition and crew members.
The entire game revolves around battling and coming out as victor. Each battle mode presents challenges that player will need to work together to solve. The battles are very interactive. The game was designed to allow freedom to the players and let them make decisions on how they will become victor. The possibilities of the results of each battle remain the hands of the players. Will stealth be your winning strategy, or will it be tanking?
Posted by: Mark on January 25, 2014
I’m a celebrity………….get me out of here first aired on UK TV screens in 2002, the show was aired on ITV and hosted by comedy duo Ant and Dec. The concept show is to place 12 celebrities into the middle of the Australian Jungle and leave them to fend for themselves with very basic rations. The camp set up is extremely basic, far from the lavish settings that the celebs are used to, beds would consist of hammocks or sleeping beds, due to the location – the beds have to be checked regularly for snakes, spiders and any other type of insect that is found in a jungle enviroment.
Entrance into the jungle has always been a challenge in itself, previous years have seen contestants skydiving into the jungle and then to navigate themselves to the camp. Entrance to the camp last year was slightly different. The starting line up of contestants was 6; the contestants were then split into 2 groups of 3. The groups then had to skydive onto a beach, once they had landed – they had to work together answering clues which would lead them to a new celebrity to join their group, once the 3 new celebrities have joined the group – the team have to race to the finish line, where a boat took the winning group to the camp, the losing team had to then navigate themselves to the camp.
Last year’s celebrities included Westlife band member Kian Egan, Emmerdale actress Lucy Pargeter, Reality Star Joey Essex, Eastenders Actress Laila Morse, Snooker player Steve Davies, Fashion Designer David Emmanuel, Talkshow host Matthew Wright, Olympic Swimming Rebecca Adlington, Miss Universe contestant Amy Willerton, Fresh Prince of Bel Air actor Alfonso Ribeiro, the contestants were joined a few days later by Annabel Giles and Vincent Simone.
The public would choose a member of the camp to undertake the daily task, the tasks vary every day. The daily tasks have included being placed into a dark tunnel, with no light available – in which the contestant has to search for stars, but the twist is – they aren’t alone in the tunnel, they are joined by rats, cockroaches and any other type of insect imaginable.
One very scary task last year involved Kian, Alfonso and the Plank of Peril. The Plank of Peril task involved two planks of wood hanging side by side, high up in the sky. The task required a huge amount of trust and teamwork, the celebrity that took on the role of obtaining the stars hanging overhead had to walk the plank blindfolded whilst being direction by their fellow team-mate, whilst the task was in progress – the production team set of distracting bangs – to which Alfonso ignored perfectly. Alfonso successfully retrieved all the stars, but just as they started to relax – the plank went from underneath Alfonso and he fell towards the ground, only saved by his bungee cord.
Controversy has plagued the camp this year regarding contraband – to the extent that Amy was warned by the producers that if she did not give up all her contraband – the entire camp would not get their meals, treatment of fellow camp members, some camp members not being eligible in taking on a particular task and whether there was some sort of communication from inside the camp to family and friends back in the UK.
Early from the start Joey Essex was favourite to be crowned King of the Jungle, he was chosen for a majority of the tasks and attacked these tasks full on – without complaint; he has been recorded as the most successful camp mate to collect the most amount of stars during his tasks. Joey was eventually voted off the show – much to everyone’s shock.
The final of I’m a Celebrity 2013 was between Kian and David, both of which became firm favourites with the public, their last task seen them eat a variety in order for them to receive a 3 course meal afterwards, the items they had to eat included fish eyeballs, live cockroaches and a pigs penis to name but a few, they were rewarded with smoked salmon, pizza, steak and a cheeseburger.
Kian was voted as the King of the Jungle in 2013. After being crowned as the new King, he spent the evening with his loved ones and enjoyed the luxury that he is used too.
So, why do people continue watching I’m a Celeb? The comedy factor of watching a celebrity they don’t like suffer is one of the main reasons. Whatever the reason, I’m a celeb is here to stay and will be back in 11 months.
For the latest on ITV shows like I’m a celebrity visit itvcompetitions.com.
Posted by: Mark on June 3, 2013
Posted by: Mark on February 20, 2013
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Posted by: Mark on November 26, 2012
In the 70’s, 80’s and 90’s most people watched soaps- soap operas were mostly watched by females who often lived their lives through the soap, then at the turn of the millennium came the beginning of reality TV – starting with Popstars – which eventually formed Hearsay.
Reality TV is currently at its peak, you either love it or loathe it. What makes reality TV so addictive is the way we get to see other people’s lives and see how different they are compared to our own. Reality television demonstrates how real people react to different scenarios; fear, romance, embarrassment and anger. These shows are a hot topic of everyday life, social media becomes taken over with status updates – because someone is still in X-Factor, or in the staff room, wherever you go – reality TV programs will be mentioned. Did you see all the posts about Rylan yesterday? Do you think he should have gone? Is he a good singer? If you said yes to the last question, I have another – are you deaf?
What most people like about reality TV is when celebrities “get involved”, these are people we watch on TV or listen to on the radio, add a few people with “status” or a bit of money , place them into a house together (Big Brother) or in the jungle (I’m a celebrity…..get me out of here!) without their entourage of stylists etc. and see how these people survive. We love to watch celebrities out of their comfort zone, away from all the “necessities” of everyday life and to be able to see how they react in situations beyond their control and whether they will cope well or breakdown under the pressure. It’s quite good fun to watch anyone eating cockroaches or covered in maggots but when it’s a celebrity that makes it even better in my book, what do you think?
So, whether we are watching people skating on the ice, eating bugs, camping in the Australian outback, as a nation we love it and reality television will always continue to feature in the news, magazines and most importantly on our televisions.
Have you noticed what these shows have in common, especially the ones on ITV? That’s right it’s viewer competitions. This guest post was supplied by http://www.itvcompetitions.co.uk/, the site primarily provides questions, answers & links to popular UK television competitions (alongside some other comps & offers).